Rock 'n' Roll , Keith Richards proposes that Chuck Berry developed his brand of rock and roll by transposing the familiar two-note lead line of jump blues piano directly to the electric guitar, creating what is instantly recognizable as rock guitar. Similarly, country boogie and Chicago electric blues supplied many of the elements that would be seen as characteristic of rock and roll.
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Rock and roll arrived at a time of considerable technological change, soon after the development of the electric guitar, amplifier and microphone , and the 45 rpm record. His style of music combined with black influences created controversy during a turbulent time in history. Bill Flagg who is a Connecticut resident, began referring to his mix of hillbilly and rock 'n' roll music as rockabilly around Although only a minor hit when first released, when used in the opening sequence of the movie Blackboard Jungle a year later, it set the rock and roll boom in motion.
If everything that came before laid the groundwork, "Rock Around the Clock" introduced the music to a global audience. Later rockabilly acts, particularly performing songwriters like Buddy Holly , would be a major influence on British Invasion acts and particularly on the song writing of the Beatles and through them on the nature of later rock music. Doo-wop was one of the most popular forms of s rhythm and blues, often compared with rock and roll, with an emphasis on multi-part vocal harmonies and meaningless backing lyrics from which the genre later gained its name , which were usually supported with light instrumentation.
Exceptions included the Platters , with songs including " The Great Pretender "  and the Coasters with humorous songs like " Yakety Yak " ,  both of which ranked among the most successful rock and roll acts of the era. Many of the earliest white rock and roll hits were covers or partial re-writes of earlier black rhythm and blues or blues songs. Songwriting credits were often unreliable; many publishers, record executives, and even managers both white and black would insert their name as a composer in order to collect royalty checks.
Covers were customary in the music industry at the time; it was made particularly easy by the compulsory license provision of United States copyright law still in effect. The more familiar sound of these covers may have been more palatable to white audiences, there may have been an element of prejudice, but labels aimed at the white market also had much better distribution networks and were generally much more profitable. Later, as those songs became popular, the original artists' recordings received radio play as well. The cover versions were not necessarily straightforward imitations.
For example, Bill Haley's incompletely bowdlerized cover of " Shake, Rattle and Roll " transformed Big Joe Turner's humorous and racy tale of adult love into an energetic teen dance number,   while Georgia Gibbs replaced Etta James 's tough, sarcastic vocal in "Roll With Me, Henry" covered as "Dance With Me, Henry" with a perkier vocal more appropriate for an audience unfamiliar with the song to which James's song was an answer , Hank Ballard 's "Work With Me, Annie".
Some commentators have suggested a decline of rock and roll in the late s and early s. During the late s and early s, the rawer sounds of Elvis Presley , Gene Vincent , Jerry Lee Lewis and Buddy Holly were commercially superseded by a more polished, commercial style of rock and roll. Marketing frequently emphasized the physical looks of the artist rather than the music, contributing to the successful careers of Ricky Nelson , Tommy Sands , Bobby Vee and the Philadelphia trio of Bobby Rydell , Frankie Avalon and Fabian , who all became "teen idols. Some music historians have also pointed to important and innovative developments that built on rock and roll in this period, including multitrack recording , developed by Les Paul , the electronic treatment of sound by such innovators as Joe Meek , and the " Wall of Sound " productions of Phil Spector ,  continued desegregation of the charts, the rise of surf music , garage rock and the Twist dance craze.
In the s, Britain was well placed to receive American rock and roll music and culture. The initial response of the British music industry was to attempt to produce copies of American records, recorded with session musicians and often fronted by teen idols. As interest in rock and roll was beginning to subside in America in the late s and early s, it was taken up by groups in major British urban centres like Liverpool , Manchester , Birmingham , and London.
Rock and roll influenced lifestyles, fashion, attitudes, and language. Many early rock and roll songs dealt with issues of cars, school, dating, and clothing. The lyrics of rock and roll songs described events and conflicts that most listeners could relate to through personal experience. Topics such as sex that had generally been considered taboo began to appear in rock and roll lyrics.
This new music tried to break boundaries and express emotions that people were actually feeling but had not talked about. An awakening began to take place in American youth culture. In the crossover of African-American "race music" to a growing white youth audience, the popularization of rock and roll involved both black performers reaching a white audience and white musicians performing African-American music. Supreme Court ruling that abolished the policy of " separate but equal " in , but leaving a policy which would be extremely difficult to enforce in parts of the United States.
Several rock historians have claimed that rock and roll was one of the first music genres to define an age group. The youth culture exemplified by rock and roll was a recurring source of concern for older generations, who worried about juvenile delinquency and social rebellion, particularly because to a large extent rock and roll culture was shared by different racial and social groups. In America, that concern was conveyed even in youth cultural artifacts such as comic books. In "There's No Romance in Rock and Roll" from True Life Romance , a defiant teen dates a rock and roll-loving boy but drops him for one who likes traditional adult music—to her parents' relief.
From its early s beginnings through the early s, rock and roll spawned new dance crazes  including the twist. Teenagers found the syncopated backbeat rhythm especially suited to reviving Big Band-era jitterbug dancing. Sock hops , school and church gym dances, and home basement dance parties became the rage, and American teens watched Dick Clark 's American Bandstand to keep up on the latest dance and fashion styles. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Genre of popular music. This article is about the s style of music. For the general rock music genre, see Rock music.
For other uses, see Rock and roll disambiguation. Rhythm and blues blues gospel boogie-woogie jazz country electric blues jump blues Chicago blues swing folk Western swing. Electric guitar piano bass drums vocals.
All shook up [electronic resource] : how rock 'n' roll changed America - Berklee College of Music
Main article: Origins of rock and roll. Main article: Rockabilly. Main article: Doo wop. Main article: Cover version. Main article: British rock and roll. Main article: Social effects of rock music. Main article: Youth subculture. Creating Country Music: Fabricating Authenticity , p. Universal Music Enterprises. Evans, "The development of the Blues" in A. Moore, ed. Hurry, M. Phillips, and M. Richards, Heinemann advanced music Heinemann, , pp.
The American Heritage Dictionary. Retrieved December 15, Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster Online. October 22, — via Google Books. May 2, Retrieved April 14, Turning Points in Rock and Roll. Bennett, Rock and popular music: politics, policies, institutions Routledge, , pp. Keightley, "Reconsidering rock" S. Frith, W. Straw and J. Campbell, ed. Retrieved March 24, Chuck Berry: The Biography. Durham, N.
His first venture, the Phillips label, issued only one known release, and it was one of the loudest, most overdriven, and distorted guitar stomps ever recorded, "Boogie in the Park" by Memphis one-man-band Joe Hill Louis, who cranked his guitar while sitting and banging at a rudimentary drum kit.
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