The Battle for Kilmallock: Military History of the Irish Civil War

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Of course any advances in the cause of equal political representation between men and women is something that deserves celebration — but spare a thought for the handful of Cumann na mBan women who died for that same cause, but who are now largely forgotten. Following the enrollment of women in the Irish Citizen Army in and the formation of Cumann na mBan in , female republicans were eager to carry arms and take the same risks as their male comrades. However, during the Rising republican women were usually confined to cooking, first aid, messaging and signalling duties in support of male combatants.

Although some women, such as Constance Marcievicz and Margaret Skinnider, claimed a full role as combatants, they were the exception and no female combatants were killed during the Rising. Despite numerous claims to the contrary Nurse Margaretta Keogh who was killed by the British Army during the fighting at South Dublin Union though frequently cited as a republican casualty, was a civilian nurse and not an active member of the republican garrison nor a member of Cumann na mBan.

Although forbidden from fighting on the battlefield, republican women were still at risk of serious injury from their encounters with the British Forces and at least two Cumann na mBan women — Josie McGowan and Margaret Keogh were killed during that conflict. McGowan was the first of several Cumann na mBan women who died during the struggle to establish an Independent Irish Republic. She died there on the 29 th September and was buried in Glasnevin Cemetery. Her father suffered a huge emotional trauma at his loss and died a week later aged just 46 years.

They are both buried in the same grave plot in Glasnevin. Keogh was fatally wounded by a gun shot in her home at Stella Gardens, Ringsend, Dublin at She died of her wounds the day after the ceasefire began. If there was one woman who embodied all of the various strands entwined in the Irish Revolution it was Margaret Keogh. Three women republicans were killed between and A year prior to her death, Keogh had been arrested by the British forces for refusing to give her name in English when questioned about her fundraising activities for Conradh na Gaeilge which was then a proscribed organisation.

During the Truce period a further three members of Cumann na mBan were killed.

List of conflicts in Ireland

Either because of political idealism, or more likely — military necessity, women were allowed to play a fuller military role during the Civil War. It is unsurprising therefore that Cumann na mBan fatalities doubled during the Civil War. Anti-Treaty Republican women played a more active military part in the Civil War and four were killed. The Dunraven Arms Hotel, where the republicans had set up their military headquarters, suffered a direct hit during the opening barrage.

In fact only one member of the garrison had been killed — Mary Hartney. She had been working as part of a First Aid unit was killed instantly in an explosion caused by the shellfire. Hartney was buried in the Republican Plot of Mount St. Lawrence Cemetery, Limerick on 7 th August On 18 th November Lily Bennett was attending the demonstration when Free State troops passing by in a motor convoy attacked the protesters.

The huge crowd began to break up amid great confusion … a machine gun was trained on the crowd, and an unnerving rattle of fire was next heard and people trampled on one another in their flight. Charlotte Despard who had been addressing the meeting later insisted that the Free State Army had opened fire without provocation.

Seven people were seriously wounded in the attack including Lily Bennet who had been shot in the back and died a short time later. Despite these successes for the National Army, it took eight more months of intermittent warfare before the war was brought to an end. By late and early , the Anti Treaty guerrillas' campaign had been reduced to acts of sabotage and destruction of public infrastructure such as roads and railways; this had been an aspect of the Anti-Treaty campaign since August , when Liam Lynch had issued general orders to this effect, "Owing to the use of railways by the Free State HQ for the conveyance of troops and war material and for the purposes of army communication, the destruction of the railways under Free State control is an essential part of our military policy".

Irish Free State offensive

Not long afterwards the railway bridge at Mallow , linking Cork and Dublin , was blown up, severing rail communications between the cities. Lynch re-emphasised the order on December 29, , leading to a concerted assault on the railways early in the new year. Charleville is the second-largest town between Limerick and Cork ; the Roman Catholic parish of Charleville is within the Diocese of Cloyne. Significant industries in the town include the construction and services sectors; the old name for the place was Rathcogan Rathgogan or Rathgoggan, the last still the name of the civil parish around the town.

The name means Cogan's rath, after the family of Miles de Cogan , granted lands there after the 12th-century Norman invasion; the new town begun by Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery in was named Charleville after Charles II , restored to the throne the previous year.

The name "Charleville" remained in common use. In December , a plebiscite of residents under the Local Government Act voted on four names: of electors, voted for Charleville. Official documents before and after have used "Rathluirc" or similar formulations. Local sports teams have a fort in their crest, reflecting the Irish name.

Charleville was founded in by 1st Earl of Orrery. He did this by naming Charleville after the English king; the villages of Brohill and Rathgoggin, who in their former guise preceded the formation of the town of Charleville in the area, fell under the rule of the following political entities: the Eoghanachta of southern Munster , at some point by the Hiberno-Norman Lordships of Ireland — although this rule was nominal rather than actual and subsequently by the Kingdom of Desmond — The lands of Broghill and Rathgogan were purchased by Roger's father Richard Boyle as a part of the Plantation of Munster and Roger subsequently established his residency there after the founding of Charleville.

During the time of the Penal Laws , practising the Catholic faith was illegal; as a result, the parish of Charleville was amalgamated with the parishes Bruree and Colmanswell, both in the Diocese of Limerick. In , Fr. Daniel Mac Namara of Bruree was registered as the Catholic priest for this large pastoral area; the fact that Catholics had to attend Mass secretly meant that the old chapel in Holy Cross cemetery was abandoned.

The remains of this church — now overgrown with ivy — are still to be seen in the centre of the graveyard. Indeed, like so many other pre churches, the old church of Holy Cross became part of the surrounding graveyard, in that several gravestones, both marked and unmarked, are to be found within the building itself.

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Charleville is geographically located within the Golden Vale region. It is 60 km from Cork city to 40 km from Limerick city to the north. Charleville is a centre for the food processing industry, with brands such as Charleville Cheese and Golden Vale produced by Kerry Co-Op. Charleville has a strong retail sector, It is home to retailers such as Eurogiant , Morans, charisma fashions and Noonans Sports.

Dunnes Stores opened a store in the town center. Charleville is home to stores and restaurants such as Lidl , Centra , Supermacs , Papa Johns , Elverys Sports and Amber Numerous spin-offs both in the town of Charleville and the surrounding area were created when Golden Vale Engineering closed its doors in ; the largest amongst these were Diamond Engineering and Sapphire Engineering.

BCD is the second largest employer in Charleville. Golden Vale continue to make cheese products in the town. Golden Vale is the largest employer in Charleville. Charleville has numerous pubs as well as two theatre facilities and is home to the North Cork Drama Festival, held in the Parochial Hall. It comprised 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland. The oath was a key issue for opponents of the Treaty, who refused to take the oath and therefore did not take their seats.

In , with the passage of the Statute of Westminster , the Parliament of the United Kingdom relinquished its remaining authority to legislate for the Free State and the other dominions; this had the effect of making the dominions sovereign states. The Free State thus became. In the first months of the Free State, the Irish Civil War was waged between the newly established National Army and the anti-Treaty IRA, who refused to recognise the state; the Civil War ended in victory for the government forces, with the anti-Treaty forces dumping their arms in May In he drafted a new constitution, passed by a referendum in July of that year; the Free State came to an end with the coming into force of a new constitution on 29 December when the state took the name "Ireland".

The Irish Revolution, 1912–23

The Easter Rising of and its aftermath caused a profound shift in public opinion towards the republican cause in Ireland. It passed a Declaration of Independence. The subsequent War of Independence, fought between the Irish Republican Army and British security forces, continued until July when a truce came into force. By this time the Ulster Parliament had opened, established under the Government of Ireland Act , presenting the republican movement with a fait accompli and guaranteeing the British presence in Ireland. The Parliament of Northern Ireland could, by presenting an address to the king, opt not to be included in the Free State , in which case a Boundary Commission would be established to determine where the boundary between them should lie.

Members of the parliament of the Free State would be required to take an oath of allegiance to the king, albeit a modification of the oath taken in other dominions. A Provisional Government was formed, with Michael Collins as chairman; the Treaty, the legislation introduced to give it legal effect, implied that Northern Ireland would be a part of the Free State on its creation, but in reality the terms of the Treaty applied only to the 26 counties, the government of the Free State had neither de facto nor de jure power in Northern Ireland. Under Article 12 of the Treaty, Northern Ireland could exercise its option by presenting an address to the King requesting not to be part of the Irish Free State.

Realistically it was always certain. County Cork County Cork is a county in Ireland. It is the largest and southernmost county of Ireland, situated in the province of Munster and named after the city of Cork , Ireland's second-largest city; the Cork County Council is the local authority for the county.

July 1922 events

Its largest market towns are Mallow , Macroom and Skibbereen. In , the county's population was , Cork borders four other counties; the county contains the Golden Vale pastureland and stretches from Kanturk in the north to Allihies in the south. The south-west region, including West Cork , is one of Ireland's main tourist destinations, known for its rugged coast, megalithic monuments, as the starting point for the Wild Atlantic Way ; the county is known as the "Rebel county", a name given to them by King Henry VII of England for its support of a man claiming to be Richard, Duke of York in a futile attempt at a rebellion.

The main third-level educator is University College Cork , founded in , with a current undergraduate population around 15, Significant local industry and employers include technology company Dell EMC , the European headquarters of Apple, Dairygold , which own milk-processing factories in Mitchelstown and Mallow. Two local authorities have remits which collectively encompass the geographic area of the county and city of Cork; the county, excluding Cork city, is administered by Cork County Council, while the city is administered separately by Cork City Council.

Both city and county are part of the South-West Region. For purposes other than local government, such as the formation of sporting teams, the term "County Cork" is taken to include both city and county. County Cork is located in the province of Munster, bordering Kerry to the west, Limerick to the north, Tipperary to the north-east and Waterford to the east, it is the largest county in Ireland by land area, the largest of Munster's six counties by population and area. At the last census in , Cork city stood at ,; the population of the entire county is , making it the state's second-most populous county and the third-most populous county on the island of Ireland.

Twenty-four historic baronies are in the county—the most of any county in Ireland. While baronies continue to be defined units, they are no longer used for many administrative purposes, their official status is illustrated by Placenames Orders made since , where official Irish names of baronies are listed. The county has civil parishes. Townlands are the smallest defined geographical divisions in Ireland, with about townlands in the county; the county's mountain rose during a period mountain formation some million years ago and include the Slieve Miskish and Caha Mountains on the Beara Peninsula , the Ballyhoura Mountains on the border with Limerick and the Shehy Mountains which contain Knockboy , the highest point in Cork.

The Shehy Mountains are on the border with Kerry and may be accessed from the area known as Priests Leap, near the village of Coomhola; the Galtee Mountains are located across parts of Tipperary and Cork and are Ireland's highest inland mountain range. The upland areas of the Ballyhoura, Boggeragh and Mullaghareirk Mountain ranges add to the range of habitats found in the county. Important habitats in the uplands include blanket bog , glacial lakes, upland grasslands.

Cork has the 13th-highest county peak in Ireland. Three rivers, the Bandon and Lee, their valleys dominate central Cork. Habitats of the valleys and floodplains include woodlands, marshes and species-rich limestone grasslands. The River Bandon flows through several towns, including Dunmanway to the west of the town of Bandon before draining into Kinsale Harbour on the south coast. Cork's sea loughs include Lough Hyne and Lough Mahon , the county has many small lakes. An area has formed where the River Lee breaks into a network of channels weaving through a series of wooded islands.

About 85 hectares of swamp are around Cork's wooded area; the Environmental Protection Agency carried out a survey of surface waters in County Cork between and , which identified rivers and 32 lakes covered by the regulations. Cork has a flat landscape with many beaches and sea cliffs along its coast; the southwest of Ireland is known for its peninsulas and some in Cork include the Beara Peninsula, Sheep's Head , Mizen Head , Brow Head. Brow Head is the most southerly point of mainland Ireland.

There are many islands off the coast in particular, off West Cork. Fastnet Rock lies in the Atlantic Ocean Cork has 1, km of coastline, the second-longest coastline of any county after Mayo. Armored car military A military armored car is a lightweight wheeled armored fighting vehicle employed for reconnaissance, internal security, armed escort, other subordinate battlefield tasks. With the gradual decline of mounted cavalry, armored cars were developed for carrying out duties assigned to horsemen.

Following the invention of the tank, the armored car remained popular due to its comparatively simplified maintenance and low production cost, it found favor with several colonial armies as a cheaper weapon for use in underdeveloped regions. During World War II , most armored cars were engineered for reconnaissance and passive observation, while others were devoted to communications tasks; some equipped with heavier armament could substitute for tracked combat vehicles in favorable conditions—such as pursuit or flanking maneuvers during the North African Campaign.

Since World War II the traditional functions of the armored car have been combined with that of the armored personnel carrier , resulting in such multipurpose designs as the BTR or the Cadillac Gage Commando. Postwar advances in recoil control technology have made it possible for a few armored cars, including the B1 Centauro , the AMXRC and EE-9 Cascavel , to carry a large cannon capable of threatening many tanks. During the Middle Ages , war wagons covered with steel plate, crewed by men armed with primitive hand cannon and muskets, were used by the Hussite rebels in Bohemia ; these were deployed in formations where the horses and oxen were at the centre, the surrounding wagons were chained together as protection from enemy cavalry.

With the invention of the steam engine, Victorian inventors designed prototype self-propelled armored vehicles for use in sieges, although none were deployed in combat. Wells ' short story The Land Ironclads provides a fictionalised account of their use; the Motor Scout was designed and built by British inventor F. Simms in , it was the first armed petrol engine-powered vehicle built.

The vehicle was a De Dion-Bouton quadricycle with a mounted Maxim machine gun on the front bar. An iron shield in front of the car protected the driver. However, these were not'armored cars' as the term is understood today, as they provided little or no protection for their crews from enemy fire, they were by virtue of their small capacity engines, less efficient than the cavalry and horse-drawn guns that they were intended to complement.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the first military armored vehicles were manufactured, by adding armor and weapons to existing vehicles; the first armored car was the Simms' Motor War Car , designed by F. The vehicle had Vickers armour 6 mm thick and was powered by a four-cylinder 3. Another early armored car of the period was the French Charron, Girardot et Voigt , presented at the Salon de l'Automobile et du cycle in Brussels , on 8 March ; the vehicle was equipped with a Hotchkiss machine gun , with 7 mm armour for the gunner. One of the first operational armoured cars with four wheel drive and enclosed rotating turret , was the Austro-Daimler Panzerwagen built by Austro-Daimler in , it was armoured with It had a 4-cylinder 35 hp 4.

Of note, both the driver and co-driver had adjustable seats enabling them to raise them to see out of the roof of the drive compartment as needed. The Italians used armored cars during the Italo-Turkish War. A great variety of armored cars appeared on both sides during World War I and these were used in various ways. Armored cars were used by more or less independent car commanders. However, sometimes they were used in larger units up to squadron size; the cars were armed with light machine guns, but larger units employed a few cars with heavier guns.

As air power became a factor, armored cars offered a mobile platform for antiaircraft guns; the first effective use of an armored vehicle in combat was achieved by the Belgian Army in August—September They had placed a Hotchkiss machine gun on Minerva touring cars, their successes in the early days of the war convinced the Belgian GHQ to create a Corps of Armoured Cars , who would be sent to fight on the Eastern front once the western front immobilized after the Battle of the Yser.

The officers' cars followed them and these began to be used to rescue downed reconnaissance pilots in the battle areas, they mounted machine guns on them and as these excursions became dangerous, they improvised boiler plate armoring on the vehicles provided by a local shipbuilder. Dublin Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster , at the mouth of the River Liffey , is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains , it has an urban area population of 1,,, while the population of the Dublin Region , as of , was 1,,, the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,, There is archaeological debate regarding where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD.

Expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin , the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion; the city expanded from the 17th century and was the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle.

Other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. He called it Eblana polis. Dublin celebrated its'official' millennium in , meaning the Irish government recognised as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would become the city of Dublin, it is now thought the Viking settlement of about was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name.

Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which became the modern Dublin ; the subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships; this pool was fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves.

Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 10th centuries. Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice; the victims came from Wales, England and beyond.

Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed.

November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Kilmallock and surrounding countryside, County Limerick. Irish Civil War. Irish Republican Army — Hidden categories: Use dmy dates from June Articles lacking in-text citations from April All articles lacking in-text citations Articles that may contain original research from November All articles that may contain original research. Revision History. Related Images. YouTube Videos. National Army soldiers armed with Lewis machine guns aboard an impromptu gunboat in the Civil War. He died during the Irish Civil War.

It was carried out by the National Army of the newly created Irish Free State against anti-treaty strongholds in the south and southwest of Ireland. Limerick is a city in County Limerick, Ireland. It is located in the Mid-West Region and is also part of the province of Munster. Limerick City and County Council is the local authority for the city.

Irish Free State offensive

From top, left to right: People's Park , St. King John's Castle on the River Shannon. O'Connell Street, Limerick. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, and is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains. Father Mathew Bridge , also known as Dublin Bridge. Dublin Castle , with its 13th century tower, was the fortified seat of British rule in Ireland until Henrietta Street developed in the s is the earliest Georgian street in Dublin. As of May , approximately 7, men and women serve in the Irish Army on a permanent basis and 1, active Reservists, divided into two geographically organised brigades.

Sarajevo citizens reading a poster with the proclamation of the Austrian annexation in German soldiers in a railway goods wagon on the way to the front in Early in the war, all sides expected the conflict to be a short one. French bayonet charge, Battle of the Frontiers ; by the end of August, French casualties exceeded ,, including 75, dead. Simms ' Motor Scout , built in as an armed car. Simms ' Motor War Car , the first armored car to be built. The earliest French armored car - the Charron-Girardot-Voigt A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire rifle cartridges in rapid succession from an ammunition belt or magazine for the purpose of suppressive fire.

Not all fully automatic firearms are machine guns.

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Top: IMI Negev light machine gun. Czechoslovak 7. A vehicle with a Sumitomo M2 heavy machine gun mounted at the rear. Cork is a city in south-west Ireland, in the province of Munster, which had a population of , in Workers clearing rubble on St Patrick's street following the Burning of Cork. Crawford Art Gallery. It is located in the South-West Region and forms part of the province of Munster.

The Battle for Kilmallock: Military History of the Irish Civil War The Battle for Kilmallock: Military History of the Irish Civil War
The Battle for Kilmallock: Military History of the Irish Civil War The Battle for Kilmallock: Military History of the Irish Civil War
The Battle for Kilmallock: Military History of the Irish Civil War The Battle for Kilmallock: Military History of the Irish Civil War
The Battle for Kilmallock: Military History of the Irish Civil War The Battle for Kilmallock: Military History of the Irish Civil War
The Battle for Kilmallock: Military History of the Irish Civil War The Battle for Kilmallock: Military History of the Irish Civil War
The Battle for Kilmallock: Military History of the Irish Civil War The Battle for Kilmallock: Military History of the Irish Civil War
The Battle for Kilmallock: Military History of the Irish Civil War The Battle for Kilmallock: Military History of the Irish Civil War

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